Impact of Flood and Flood Disaster Management: The Perception of Smallholder Farmers in Kelantan Malaysia

Page 80 – 96 | Abdussalam Adamu Jega, Norsida Man, Ismail Abd Latiff, Kelly Kai Seng Wong

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.22.07


Of all natural disasters occurring in most part of the world floods account for significant socio-economic losses especially to smallholder farming communities living along coastal and low-lying areas. Hence, flood disaster management systems, which seek to reduce the vulnerability and build the resilience among the affected communities has become critical given the growing effects of floods. However, perception of smallholder farmers on the impact of flood and flood disaster management were rarely sought. This paper therefore, examines the impact of flood on smallholder farmers’ livelihood and the extent of flood disaster management programmes in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data were obtained from 344 affected smallholder farmers using multistage sampling technique and were analysed through the use of descriptive and factor analyses using SPSS and AMOS. The findings showed that flood has a negative impact on smallholder farmers’ crop production and income. Further, it revealed that, smallholder farmers received more non-structural and short term recovery needs resources than structural and long term recovery resources. The implication of this study would help policy makers to facilitate more consistent and comprehensive long-term cost-effective strategies for an integrated flood management. In addition, it gives further insight to the academicians in the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) in the future research.

Keywords:  Flood impact, Flood management, Smallholder farmers, Factor analysis

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Behavioral Control With Anti-Littering Behavioral Intention at Iran Forest Park

Page 168– 178 | Kambiz Yousefi Talooki, Mazlina Jamaludin, Azlizam Aziz

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.13


Littering is the prevalent problem among Iranian forest parks. Forest parks’ managers made several efforts to overcome this undesirable problem. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of their approaches was restricted to short-term and to specific forest park, only because of neglecting a large number of underlying factors and beliefs.  This study was conducted to determine the relationship among two variables, which are attitude, perceived behavioral control with intention of forest parks’ visitors to perform anti-littering behavior through utilizing theory of planned behavior.  Simple random sampling and convenience sampling were used in the survey. The sample of this study consisted of 160 forest park millennial visitors who come to the Shahid Zare Forest Park, Iran during peak season period in the year of 2017.  Inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the data collected using Smart PLS 3.0. The study results revealed the perceived behavioral control (β= 0.735) is more effective variable than active anti littering behavior.  Based on the finding of this study, it could be useful for forest park’s managers to consider perceived behavioral control more in their management approaches to ensure cleanliness in the forest parks to obtain long term behavioral change amongst forest park visitors.

Keywords: Attitude, Behavioral Control And Anti-Littering.

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Education Policy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and way forward

Page 159– 167 | Ibrahim Yaro

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.12


The development of any nation and its achieving greatness depends largely on the development and the effectiveness of implementing appropriate education laws. For this reason, most governments all over the world placed much emphasis on educational policies as instruments of national development. In the Nigerian context, despite the importance attached to education policy development, certain challenges affect the implementation of the education policies which adversely affects academic excellence. The paper used secondary source of data through extant literature and document review as a map of action and identified that institutional weaknesses, lack of professionalism and inadequate manpower among others constrained education policy development in Nigeria. This adversely blocked the chances of achieving educational policy goals. It is therefore, recommended that the institutional capacities need to be strengthened, competent and qualified personnel need to be recruited and appropriate stakeholders need to be allowed full participation in education establishment. This is believed to effectively aid in the developing quality educational policies and also implementing them appropriately towards achieving academic excellence.

Keywords: Education Policy, Policy Development, Nigeria

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Can Teachers’ Age and Experience influence Teacher Effectiveness in HOTS?

Page 144– 158 | Rahida Aini Mohd Ismail, Rozita Arshad, Zakaria Abas

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.11


Education is an important element in devoting to economic growth. In today’s challenging world, it is important to prepare and equip our students with HOTS like problem-solving skills, decision-making skills and life-long learning for our future workforce. However, according to the OECD Review on PISA in 2015, the Malaysian students scored below the international standard. To further improve the education services, teacher effectiveness is vital as they shoulder the responsibility to develop students’ HOTS as the key employability skills to equip them for better life opportunities in the 21st century. Besides, literature reflected disparity between teachers’ age, experience, and teacher effectiveness.This phenomenon suggests that teachers’ age and experience should be examined to determine the differences in relation to teacher effectiveness in delivering HOTS teaching. The hypotheses was formulated, and tested in this study. The sample size consisted of 410 teachers. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics: independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The weight of statistical evident showed that, there is a significant difference between age, experience, and teacher effectiveness. A follow up test, Post-hoc Scheffe was chosen due to the unequal group sizes to determine the actual direction of significance.

Keywords: Demographic variables, teaching, HOTS

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Trend of Human Right Abuse in Nigeria: 1996-2013

Page 70 – 79 | Timothy Onimisi

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.22.06


This paper seeks to demonstrate the trend in human rights abuse in Nigerian from the 1996 to 2013. The continuous and increasing cases of human right abuse all over the world and in Nigeria particular prompted the enactment of the Human Right Commission of Nigeria. The purposes of this paper therefore the access the complaints of human right abuse received by the commission within the specific period of 1996 to 2013. To achieve the aim of this paper, documents from the Human rights Commission of Nigeria was used, and a number of article were equally used, with a content methodology of analysis. The paper found an increasing trend of complaints of human rights abuse in the country signaling increasing awareness of the activities of the commission. The paper shows  an increasing case of report of human right abuse in the country especially cases relating to dismissal/wrongful termination of appointment, domestic violence, unlawful arrest and detention, non-payment of benefits, child abandonment, cruel/inhuman and degrading, and labor right abuses. However more awareness is needed to capture greater number of unreported abuse in Nigeria.

Keywords:  Human Rights, Human Rights Abuse, Human Right Commission, Complains, Nigeria

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Exploring the Causes of Multidimensional Poverty Indicators in Bauchi State and its Mitigation Strategies

Page 126– 143 | Umar Farouk Musa, Mohamad Ainuddin Iskandar Lee Bin Abdullah, Ratnaria Wahid

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.10


Statistics divulge that multidimensional poverty indicators are apparent in sub-Saharan Africa, while based on region in Nigeria; North-eastern part of the country and Bauchi state recorded 89.5 percent across education, health and standard of living. The main objective of this study is to explore the causes and suggested some strategies for the mitigation of this phenomenon. In achieving this, semi-structured interviews were carried out and generated data from 20 informants whereas eeight interview protocols were developed and the data were analyzed thematically. Findings from the study reveal that unemployment, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructures, poor entrepreneurial initiatives and mismanagement of resources were the causes of poverty in the study area. Concurrently, poor funding, inadequate infrastructure, and capacity building were some of the factors affecting education and health indicators. Increased budgetary allocation, provision of modern learning equipment; medical facilities, better welfare packages, incentives and human resources development were primarily suggested to influence the delivery of qualitative health care and educational service. Public, private partnership, and community coalition efforts shall speed up the living standard of the people in practical terms. The study recommended for the proper utilization of human and capital resource, reestablishment of the state health insurance scheme across formal and informal sectors of the economy.

 Keywords: Causes, Multidimensional Poverty Indicators, Strategies, Bauchi State

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A Perspective On The Prevelance Of Poverty In Katsina State Nigeria: Implication For Rural Development

Page 117– 125 | Salisu Ahmed Kabiru, Rozita Arshad

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.09


Over the years the incidence of poverty has been in the increase defying all government effort. The issues of poverty has become a topical discuss in the world that it occupied a front burner. Poverty in Nigeria has been in the rise as in 2009 the rate of poverty was 53.5, it rose to 62.9 percent in 2010, and in 2016, the rate has reached a time record of 72 percent. The purpose of this study was to provide a clear picture of the extent of poverty in Katsina state in particular and Nigeria in general. The study adopted survey approach and 400 useable questionnaire was utilized for the analysis which was done using descriptive and chi-square analysis. The main findings from the analysis indicates the prevalence of abject poverty in the rural areas of Katsina state. The study recommends that the existing poverty alleviation programs in the state and in Nigeria as a whole should be review in such a way to make the strategy more effective in tackling poverty. The main contribution of this study was its empiricism in confirming the items that measure poverty through factor analysis, and the sample size which was adequate enough for making generalization within regions and among regions.

Keywords: Poverty, Rural Development, Rural Area

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Corruption and Rising Poverty Level in Nigeria

Page 97– 116 | Babayo Sule, Dr Saalah Yakubu Ibrahim, Abdulkadir Ibrahim

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.08


This paper examines the impact of political corruption on increasing poverty in Nigeria. For many decades, Nigeria has been known locally and internationally as one of the corrupt and poverty ridden-countries in the world. Thus, there is a correlation between political corruption and increased level of poverty in Nigeria. The main problem of the research is, resources meant for provision of developmental services and projects for the public are diverted in corrupt practices which not only cause poverty but also increased it. This should not be in a rich country like Nigeria being the six largest oil exporter in the world and a bless country with diverse mineral and adequate human resources. The objective of the work is to study how corruption plays a role in causing and increasing poverty in Nigeria amidst plenty of resources available. The methodology adopted for this research is the use of secondary sources only such as textbooks, journals, reports and online sources. The research discovered that political corruption is a major factor in the paradox of poverty in Nigeria and unless, it is curbed, poverty will continue to increase rendering millions of Nigerians poor and deprived. The research also established that, as political corruption increased, so also poverty level increased which means there is a direct correlation between the two. The research recommends that, for proper poverty eradication, corruption and corrupt practices must be addressed immediately through instituting a mechanism of severe punishment for the offenders and absolute blockage of leakage from government coppers.

Keywords: Corruption, Poverty, Nigeria, Corruption Perception Index, Human Poverty Index

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Innovation Sources on Firm Performance in Malaysia SMEs

Page 1 – 14 | Nur Atiqah Bahrin, Veerqa Pandiyan, Rajoo A / L Gopal

However, according to the OECD Review of Innovation Policy in 2013, Malaysia has yet to enter a stage of innovation-led growth in terms of economic development and the country business research performance has not significantly improved in the last decade. This phenomenon suggests that some sources of innovation should be examined in order to successfully promote innovation-led growth amongst SMEs in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims at developing a constructive framework to examine the relationships between sourcesible innovation and firm performance in order to help local SMEs to design proper strategy for better firm performance in the future.

Keywords: Innovation, Firm Performance, SMEs

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