Reliability and Validity of Education Infrastructure, NGOs and Rural Development: A Factor Analysis Approach

Page 49 – 61 | Salisu Ahmed Karibu, Rozita Arshad

DOI: //



Reliability and validity analysis are techniques used in ensuring that the research instrument for a given study is reliable and valid. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the research instrument through factor analysis techniques. The study adopted survey approach and 400 useable questionnaires were utilized for the analysis using SPSS 24 version. The main findings of the  analysis showed that the measurements were good enough as their Cronbach Alpha value ranges from 0.7 to 0.9, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Test for Sampling Adequacy ranges from 0.6 to 0.9. The main contribution of this study was its empiricism in confirming the reliability and validity of the research instrument. The introduction of NGOs as a moderator for the first time in development studies literature is another contribution and a breakthrough in development studies dicipline.

Keywords: Reliability, Validity, Factor Analysis, Education, NGOs.


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Culture and Financial Literacy: Attitude towards Savings among Malay in Malaysian Public Sector

Page 15 – 32 | Nur Khairina Muhamad Husin, Ahmad Martadha Mohamed

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.24.02


Savings among Malaysians are critically low due to many factors that affect their savings behavior especially among the Malays employees. Based on the research conducted previously, it has been identified that the culture can shape the individual patterns of behavior. Therefore, this study will determine the relationship between cultural factors with the attitude towards savings among Malay employees in Malaysian public sector by looking at the financial literacy aspect as one of the component of the culture. For the sampling technique, a random selection of employees in Malaysian public sector will be applied in this study. Overall, this study aims to obtain total of 860 respondents to be participated in this study. Hence, this study provides knowledge about the culture of savings among the Malay employees in Malaysian public sector employees and enables both individuals and the government to identify the best solution to deal with insufficient savings that can secure their life in future.


Keywords: Culture, Financial Literacy, Attitude Towards Savings

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Teachers’ Delivery Effectiveness amongst Teachers with different teaching field: Any significant difference?

Page 1 – 14 | Rahida Aini Mohd Ismail, Rozita Arshad, Zakaria Abas

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.24.01


This research was driven by an interest to investigate whether the demographic variable like teaching field have any significant difference on teachers’ delivery effectiveness (TDE) in relation with the implementation of HOTS teaching in the classrooms. The hypothesis H1 was formulated, and tested in this study. The sample size consisted of 410 teachers. Data were analysed using inferential statistics – independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The weight of statistical evident showed that there is a significant difference amongst teachers with different teaching field and TDE in relation to HOTS implementation in the states of Kedah, Perak, Penang, and Perlis. The overall results showed that there is a significant difference amongst teachers of different teaching field and TDE in the context of classroom management behaviour, classroom management strategy, student attention, students’ review and practice, questioning skills, students’ need progress, teaching method, classroom climate, self-concept in learners, and classroom environment. The results indicated that teachers with different teaching field can influence teachers’ delivery effectiveness.

Keywords: Demographic variables, teaching field, Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

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Historical Overview of the Nigeria–Cameroon Bakassi Peninsula Conflict

Page 31 – 48 | Timothy Onimisi

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.23.03



The Bakassi Peninsula has been a disputed piece of territory between Nigeria and Cameroon for decades and the source of several conflicts in 1980s and the early 1990s.  The discovery of potential oil reserve in the water surrounding the peninsula has only heightened tensions between the two countries.  This paper examined the historical context in the Bakassi Peninsula conflict between Nigeria and Cameroon, and Ambozian claim, up to the judgment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ in 2002). It employs an historical analysis, with a secondary source of data collection.  This study discovered that the Efik people of Nigeria has historically settled in Bakassi Peninsula, until General Yakubu Gowon the former Nigeria Head of State, overwhelmed by the support which Cameroon extended to Nigeria during her civil war, signed a treaty with Cameroon. And the discovery of oil in the Bakassi Peninsula has only heightened the problem. Based on these findings the researcher recommends that both countries should come together for greater and more productive cross border cooperation in safeguiding the exclusive economy zone. It also recommends closer ties among the Africa countries in order to solve their difference outside the world conventional court and this mechanism will lead to the stronger soci-economic ties amongst the countries.

Keywords: Conflict, Confliction Solution, Bakassi Peninsula, Historical Context, Oil Reserve

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Relationship between Centralization and Construction Waste Disposal among Construction Organizations

Page 16 – 30 | Yusuf Nasidi, A.M. Kamaruddeen, L. S. Barau, M. B. Nuhu

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.23.02



This paper examines the relationship between centralization and construction waste disposal in construction waste management. A quantitative method of survey was adopted for this study. A total of 310 questionnaires were distributed personally to project-based organization managers in Abuja Nigeria, out of which 178 were returned   and used for data analysis, yielding 57.4 percent response rate. Structural equation model, Partial least square (PLS-SEM 2.0) was employed for data analysis. The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the variables ranging from 0.855 to 0.909 indicates a very good reliability of the research instrument. The findings show that centralization has significant and positive relationship with construction waste disposal with the t value of 14.950 at 5% significant level. Both practical and theoretical contributions have been achieved in this study; the theoretical contribution is the extension of the existing literature about centralization – construction waste disposal. The practical contribution is that centralization and construction waste disposal is statistically significant and positively related.

Keywords: Centralization, Construction Waste Disposal

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Determinants of Tax Evasion in Nigeria

Page 1 – 15 | Abdullahi Bala Ado, Amir Mani, Kuwata Goni, Umar Aliyu Mustapha

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.23.01


This study examines tax evasion and its determinants in Nigeria. A survey using questionnaires was carried out, where 50 questionnaires were administered to examine the opinion and perceptions of civil servants (Tax Administrators) in Nigeria towards tax evasion, through the use of a branch of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) as a case study. Hypotheses were tested to measure the relationship between tax laws, public governance, tax rates and amount of tax evading determinants in Nigeria. The Taro Yamani’s sampling sizing method and Karl Pearson’s chi-square method of data analysis were adhered to, which produced a swift and reliable data. This study therefore recommends that; Assets declaration & whistle-blowing policy used in fighting corruption by the current President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration should be extended to the Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS). It also recommends that there should be modifications and reviews of tax laws and tax rates. Also, the tax administrators should device a means whereby tax orientation will be a routine duty to taxable subjects.

Keywords: Tax Evasion, Tax Administrators, Public Governance, Determinants, Tax Orientation.

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Impact of Flood and Flood Disaster Management: The Perception of Smallholder Farmers in Kelantan Malaysia

Page 80 – 96 | Abdussalam Adamu Jega, Norsida Man, Ismail Abd Latiff, Kelly Kai Seng Wong

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.22.07


Of all natural disasters occurring in most part of the world floods account for significant socio-economic losses especially to smallholder farming communities living along coastal and low-lying areas. Hence, flood disaster management systems, which seek to reduce the vulnerability and build the resilience among the affected communities has become critical given the growing effects of floods. However, perception of smallholder farmers on the impact of flood and flood disaster management were rarely sought. This paper therefore, examines the impact of flood on smallholder farmers’ livelihood and the extent of flood disaster management programmes in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data were obtained from 344 affected smallholder farmers using multistage sampling technique and were analysed through the use of descriptive and factor analyses using SPSS and AMOS. The findings showed that flood has a negative impact on smallholder farmers’ crop production and income. Further, it revealed that, smallholder farmers received more non-structural and short term recovery needs resources than structural and long term recovery resources. The implication of this study would help policy makers to facilitate more consistent and comprehensive long-term cost-effective strategies for an integrated flood management. In addition, it gives further insight to the academicians in the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) in the future research.

Keywords:  Flood impact, Flood management, Smallholder farmers, Factor analysis

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Behavioral Control With Anti-Littering Behavioral Intention at Iran Forest Park

Page 168– 178 | Kambiz Yousefi Talooki, Mazlina Jamaludin, Azlizam Aziz

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.13


Littering is the prevalent problem among Iranian forest parks. Forest parks’ managers made several efforts to overcome this undesirable problem. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of their approaches was restricted to short-term and to specific forest park, only because of neglecting a large number of underlying factors and beliefs.  This study was conducted to determine the relationship among two variables, which are attitude, perceived behavioral control with intention of forest parks’ visitors to perform anti-littering behavior through utilizing theory of planned behavior.  Simple random sampling and convenience sampling were used in the survey. The sample of this study consisted of 160 forest park millennial visitors who come to the Shahid Zare Forest Park, Iran during peak season period in the year of 2017.  Inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the data collected using Smart PLS 3.0. The study results revealed the perceived behavioral control (β= 0.735) is more effective variable than active anti littering behavior.  Based on the finding of this study, it could be useful for forest park’s managers to consider perceived behavioral control more in their management approaches to ensure cleanliness in the forest parks to obtain long term behavioral change amongst forest park visitors.

Keywords: Attitude, Behavioral Control And Anti-Littering.

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Education Policy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and way forward

Page 159– 167 | Ibrahim Yaro

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.12


The development of any nation and its achieving greatness depends largely on the development and the effectiveness of implementing appropriate education laws. For this reason, most governments all over the world placed much emphasis on educational policies as instruments of national development. In the Nigerian context, despite the importance attached to education policy development, certain challenges affect the implementation of the education policies which adversely affects academic excellence. The paper used secondary source of data through extant literature and document review as a map of action and identified that institutional weaknesses, lack of professionalism and inadequate manpower among others constrained education policy development in Nigeria. This adversely blocked the chances of achieving educational policy goals. It is therefore, recommended that the institutional capacities need to be strengthened, competent and qualified personnel need to be recruited and appropriate stakeholders need to be allowed full participation in education establishment. This is believed to effectively aid in the developing quality educational policies and also implementing them appropriately towards achieving academic excellence.

Keywords: Education Policy, Policy Development, Nigeria

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Can Teachers’ Age and Experience influence Teacher Effectiveness in HOTS?

Page 144– 158 | Rahida Aini Mohd Ismail, Rozita Arshad, Zakaria Abas

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.11


Education is an important element in devoting to economic growth. In today’s challenging world, it is important to prepare and equip our students with HOTS like problem-solving skills, decision-making skills and life-long learning for our future workforce. However, according to the OECD Review on PISA in 2015, the Malaysian students scored below the international standard. To further improve the education services, teacher effectiveness is vital as they shoulder the responsibility to develop students’ HOTS as the key employability skills to equip them for better life opportunities in the 21st century. Besides, literature reflected disparity between teachers’ age, experience, and teacher effectiveness.This phenomenon suggests that teachers’ age and experience should be examined to determine the differences in relation to teacher effectiveness in delivering HOTS teaching. The hypotheses was formulated, and tested in this study. The sample size consisted of 410 teachers. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics: independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The weight of statistical evident showed that, there is a significant difference between age, experience, and teacher effectiveness. A follow up test, Post-hoc Scheffe was chosen due to the unequal group sizes to determine the actual direction of significance.

Keywords: Demographic variables, teaching, HOTS

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