FDI Inflows and Institutions: Evidence from ECOWAS Member Countries

Page 58 – 73 | Aminu Abdullahi, Aduma. O. Aduma

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.41.05


The study examines the extent to which institutions; proxied by economic, political and socio-cultural factors attracts FDI into West Africa. The study employs the System Generalized Method of Moments (SGMM) dynamic panel modeling technique for the period 2010 to 2016 on cross-country samples of sixteen selected West-African countries. The findings of the study revealed that voice and accountability, political stability, regulatory quality, human capital, property rights and control of corruption has an insignificant positive influence on FDI inflow in the selected West African countries. This implies that generally, institutions are associated with FDI inflow in the region, although their coefficients are statistically insignificant during the period under study. However, government effectiveness is negatively related with FDI. Therefore, the policy direction drawn from the study is that governments in West African countries should be committed and focus more attention on institutional development for attracting FDI. Efforts should target such institutions as those that allow government bureaucracy to run effectively so as to provide the needed public goods and services in the form of basic social infrastructures. This is one of the ways that improvements in the quality of institutions to attract FDI can significantly add up both in the short-run and long-run periods. Further, the region should also, as a matter of priority, develop such institutions that promote political rights and civil liberty, building political stability and an independent and credible judicial system for enforcement of contracts and property rights protection.

Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Institutions, ECOWAS

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COVID-19 a Gate way to New World order (An Analysis of WHO in the 21st Century)

Page 37 – 57 | Musa Saleh, Aliyu Mohammed Malami, Nafiu Mahmood Alhaji, Saidu Umar Mohammed

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.41.04


World Health Organization experienced some many challenges during COVID-19 outbreak. Globally, as of 26 June 2020 there have been over 9, 413, 280 confirmed cases of corona virus including 482, 730 deaths. This paper assessed the challenges facing World Health Organization in the 21st century particularly on COVID-19 pandemic. The study adopts descriptive research design. A secondary source such as newspapers, reports, published and unpublished journals was utilized. The data was subjected base on thematic content analysis and categorization in line with the research objective. The study findings confirmed that the way and manner World Health Organization handle COVID-19 has caused internal political crisis across the globe. For instance, protest in Brazil, Nigeria, US among others over the eased of lockdown and stay at home policies. The study findings also indicate that America and Madagascar officially withdrew their membership because the criticized World Health Organization as acting likes political organization. Brazil also threatened to pull out over ideological bias. Therefore, the study concluded that medical crisis, lack of fund, racism among others have been trailing within World Health Organization. The study recommends that world attention should be focus on regional health agencies in order to end globalization and isolationism.

Keywords: New world order, Covid-19, Corruption, Pullout, Racism

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Impact of COVID-19 on Tanzania Political Economy

Page 24 – 36 | Musa Saleh

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.41.03


Globally, COVID-19 pandemic has currently spread to more than 200 countries, including African countries. More than 6, 799, 713 confirmed cases of COVID-19 across the globe with 397,388 deaths. In Tanzania COVID-19 pandemic is negatively affect the lives of millions of people, hence increase the financial burdens in the areas of agriculture sector, health, hospitality, tourism, education, and Banking sector among others. This paper achieved the following objectives: to investigate the political impact of COVID-19, to examine the economic impact of COVID-19, and to identify the Strategy Measures in Mitigating the COVID-19 virus in Tanzania. The data collected on this paper relied on secondary sources such as reports, newspapers, Magazines and among others. The data obtained was analyzed, and categorized by using thematic content analysis in line with the objectives of the study. The findings of this study revealed that Tanzania government handling COVID-19 Pandemic in such a way that the country comes first and above everything else. Trade and tourism are serious affected with more than 60 percent of Tanzanians are at risk of losing their job due to COVID-19 Pandemic. Lastly, government limits the number of passengers from public transports and also reduced schedule for domestic flights. Internationally, the government established COVID-19 screening at the point of entry and it’s compulsory to all passengers to quarantine for a period of 14 days within the government designated facilities. The above findings contribute a lot for future research on the challenges of COVID-19 on African political economy.

Keywords: COVID-19, Political, Economy, Disruption, Measures

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The Call to Climate Action Is Not A Super-High Way

Page 16 – 23 | Emmanuel Kwabena Owusu

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.41.02


Over the last few decades, the issue of climate change has been on top of the list of challenges the world is waging war against. The IPCC through its yearly assessment reports have laid down several protocols to which nations and organizations use as guide to address the challenges resulting from climate change. Despite the interventions from world leaders in the fight against the emerging effects of climate change, there seem to be a missing link and hence the need for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to responding to the call to action on climate change from the bottom as compared to the top down approach by world leaders. The paper employed the use of secondary data obtained from the internet, books, global reports and journal articles. Form the study, it can be concluded that for each and every individual to partake in the Climate Action as outlined by the United Nations, every school as a matter of urgency should know how much electricity it uses, alongside other fuels for heating as knowing how to manage heating or lighting controls can slash energy wastage, save money and reduce global emissions. It is recommended that countries who are signatory to the United Nations treaties, conventions and protocols ensure the effective inculcation of Environmental Education into their educational curriculum to foster the teaching and learning of climate change and its associated impacts to human life and the environment at large.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Action, Environmental Education

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Associated Factors among Unmarried Pregnant Adolescents in Malaysia

Page 1 – 15 | Mohamad Shahbani Sekh Bidin, Fuziah Shaffie

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.41.01


Unmarried pregnant adolescents occur in female adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. It is a global endemic, which is currently a problem in Malaysia. The increase of unmarried pregnancy among adolescents is not to be taken lightly. Other than grappling with the risk of physical health and psychological, the female adolescents involved are also exposed to the lack of education, limited employment opportunities, stigma and discrimination as this problem is profoundly sensitive in Malaysia. Besides, the consequences of unmarried pregnancy give a major concern that leads to the issue of baby dumping and illegitimate children. If this problem is left unaddressed with appropriate intervention, the female adolescents will have a low quality of life and disrupted function in society. Thus, it is essential to understand the problem of unmarried pregnant adolescents that is seen as inevitable. Because of that, this paper attempts to discuss the factors associated with unmarried pregnant adolescents in Malaysia.

Keywords: Unmarried pregnancy, female adolescent, Malaysia

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Capacity Building Resource Apparatus Regional Area in Indonesia: Case Study On Regional Expansion

Page 1 – 17 | Suraji, Muhamad Ali Embi

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.31.01


This study aims to investigate in depth the capacity building of regional expansion and its success. Basically the policy of regional expansion is a policy to provide the best service to the community and the welfare of the region. The issues have arisen when the expansion of areas are not in accordance with the initial objectives of the submission of regional expansion. Especially, the issues related to the development of regional institutional capacity such as a weak quality of regional apparatus resources and regional institutions become crucial to be seen.  This study used case study as qualitative approach through semi-structured interview of seven participants from various levels and professions that affected in regional expansion. In this context, this study requires the development of good institutional and quality of local apparatus resources that focused on the aspect of the placement of regional apparatus in the expansion area that is vital to be explored. As a result, this study gives the implications in terms of improving the quality of human resources and regional management, encouraging local governments to run in accordance with good governance. The inception of the region into an autonomous region requires the role of resource personnel who are reliable, intelligent, innovative, competent, and educated and well-rounded.

Keywords: Capacity Building, Resource Area, Regional Expansion, Indonesia, Case Study

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The State of the Art of E-Wallet Utilization via QR Code: An Empirical Analysis on M40 Millennials in Malaysia

Page 42 – 63 | Foo-Wah Lim, Fakhrorazi Ahmad, Asmat Nizam B Abdul Talib
DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.22.04


The Malaysian government is pushing for a cashless society, but going cashless is all the rage now. The electronic wallet (e-wallet) in Malaysia is still in the infancy stage and the reasons to explain the behavioural intention to use e-wallet transaction via Quick Response (QR) code are still remaining unclear. To address these requisites, the purpose of this study is to examine the predictors of the behavioural intention to use e-wallet transaction via QR code among Middle 40 percent (M40) millennials in Malaysia. Thus, this study aims to examine the relationship between facilitating conditions, effort expectancy, performance expectancy and social influence toward the behavioural intention to use e-wallet transaction via QR code. By using self-administered survey, the data were obtained from 487 respondents from M40 millennials in Malaysia. The data were then analyzed utilizing Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) technique. The findings indicate that, of all those four elements indicated a positive significant influence on behavioural intention to use e-wallet transaction via QR code. Lastly, performance expectancy was also found to have partial mediation effect between the relationship between effort expectancy and behavioural intention to use e-wallet transaction via QR code among M40 millennials in Malaysia.

Keywords: Electronic Wallet, QR Code, M40 Millennials, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), Malaysia

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Liberal Islam In Malaysia: Non-Government Organization Sister In Islam (SIS)

Page 33 – 42 | Nur Izzati Liyana Binti Azizan, Zaheruddin Bin Othman, Ruslan Bin Zainuddin
DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.24.03

This paper seeks an understanding to the Liberal Islamic that related to Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Malaysia. Sister In Islam (SIS) is chosen because it is an established NGO in Malaysia during the late 1980s and SIS were related to Liberal Islam. In addition, its attempts to clarify the link between Sister In Islam and Non-governmental Organization (NGO), which is seen as one of the bodies that fought women and Islam in line with the emergence of Liberal Islam in Malaysia today. This is due to the reality of multi-racial and religious communities in Malaysia that facilitates the spread of Liberal Islam. In this paper, to analyze the data, the model has been modified by using primary data and secondary data through field study and library study. In addition, the available data collected as well as interview methods were also conducted to obtain additional information. Hence, this paper provides knowledge about Liberal Islam to community and it is as a guidelines to every Non-Goverment Organization (NGO) established to comply with the norms and sensibilities of society in Malaysia.

Keywords: Liberal Islam, Sister In Islam (SIS), Non-Government Organization (NGO)

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Muslim Women Issues In Malaysia : Non- Government Organization Sister In Islam (SIS)

Page 78 – 88 | Nur Izzati Liyana Binti Azizan, Zaheruddin Bin Othman, Ruslan Bin Zainuddin
DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.23.06


The Sisters In Islam (SIS) volume in producing opinions and suggestions on various issues pertaining to Muslim women in particular has placed SIS among the women’s emancipation group in Malaysia. This can be seen through the main objective of the establishment of SIS, which is to depict and develop a framework of women’s rights in Islam that takes into account women’s experience and reality. This paper focuses on Islamic Muslim women’s issues in Malaysia. The main objectives is regarding the women Islamic issues that are related to Sisters In Islam in Malaysia as a focus. This study attempted to explain the role of Sisters In Islam’s approach as one of the bodies that fought women in Malaysia today. The methodology that was used by analyzing qualitative data research that includes in-depth interview, primary and secondary data. Secondary documentation study is done through the data accessed from various libraries, websites, newspapers and magazines.

Keywords: Sister In Islam (SIS), Non-Government Organization (NGO), Women’s right, Gender Equality

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Analysis of Gender Agricultural Cooperative Societies in Soba Local Government Area Kaduna State, Nigeria

Page 62 – 77 | Imrana hari,  Sani Abubakar Sadiq, Bello Samira

DOI: //dx.doi.org/10.30690/ijassi.23.05



The aim of this study is to make a comparative analysis of gender agricultural cooperative societies in Soba L.G.A of Kaduna State. A total of 330 samples were randomly selected in the study area. Both descriptive and inferential statiscal techniques such as frequencies, percentages, graphs and paired T-Test were used to analyse the data obtained from the field. The study revealed that, majority of men (32.7%) and women (41.2%) cooperators in the study area are between the ages of 31-40 years, married with different economic activities, but farming represents the dominant occupation of men cooperators (84.2%) while trading represents the dominant occupation of the women cooperators (30.3%). More than (90%) of both men and women cooperators are literate. In terms of contribution to farming activities (35.25%) of male cooperators and (6.7%) of female cooperators are able to produce more than 60 bags after joining cooperatives compared to only (1.8%) male cooperators and (0.6%) female cooperator, before joining cooperatives. The study also reveals diversification of sources of farm inputs for all cooperators after joining farmers cooperatives compared to reliance on only market for (69.1%) men and (68.9%) women before joining farmers’ cooperative society.    Finally, the study reveals that there is significant difference between men cooperators and women cooperators productivity of crops in bags before and after joining farmers’ cooperatives in the study area, since the P-value of men and women cooperators productivity before joining cooperatives is .043 which is less than .05, while the P-value of men and women cooperators productivity after joining farmer cooperatives is .000. Based on the findings, the study recommends for continued support and assistance of government at all levels, NGOs, agencies and relevant individuals to provide modalities to make rural people join cooperatives and assist in the provision of fund, farm inputs and training regardless of gender.

Keywords: Cooperative societies, Farmers cooperators, Agriculture, Farming Activities


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