Page 144– 158 | Rahida Aini Mohd Ismail, Rozita Arshad, Zakaria Abas

DOI: 10.30690/ijassi.21.11


Education is an important element in devoting to economic growth. In today’s challenging world, it is important to prepare and equip our students with HOTS like problem-solving skills, decision-making skills and life-long learning for our future workforce. However, according to the OECD Review on PISA in 2015, the Malaysian students scored below the international standard. To further improve the education services, teacher effectiveness is vital as they shoulder the responsibility to develop students’ HOTS as the key employability skills to equip them for better life opportunities in the 21st century. Besides, literature reflected disparity between teachers’ age, experience, and teacher effectiveness.This phenomenon suggests that teachers’ age and experience should be examined to determine the differences in relation to teacher effectiveness in delivering HOTS teaching. The hypotheses was formulated, and tested in this study. The sample size consisted of 410 teachers. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics: independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The weight of statistical evident showed that, there is a significant difference between age, experience, and teacher effectiveness. A follow up test, Post-hoc Scheffe was chosen due to the unequal group sizes to determine the actual direction of significance.

Keywords: Demographic variables, teaching, HOTS

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